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[Zielgerät 1229 ‘Vampir’](http://s10.photobucket.com/user/AKS-74/media/nachtjager2.jpg.html)
> The first military night vision devices were introduced by the German army as early as 1939. The first devices were being developed by AEG starting in 1935. In mid-1943, first tests with infrared night-vision (Nacht Jager) devices and telescopic rangefinders mounted on Panther started. Two different arrangements / solutions were created and used on Panther tanks. Solution A – Sperber FG 1250 (Sparrow Hawk), with range up to 600m, was made up of one 30 cm infrared searchlight and image converter operated by the commander. From late 1944 to March 1945, some Panzerkampfwagen V Panther Ausf G (and other variants) mounted with FG 1250, were successfully tested. By the end of World War II, the German army had equipped approximately 50 (or 63) Panther tanks, which saw combat on both the Eastern and Western Fronts. The “Vampir” man-portable system for infantrymen was being used with Sturmgewehr 44 assault rifles. Parallel development of night vision systems occurred in the USA. The M1 and M3 infrared night sighting devices, also known as the “sniperscope” or “snooperscope”, were introduced by the US Army in World War II, and also used in the Korean War, to assist snipers. They were active devices, using a large infrared light source to illuminate targets. Their image intensifier tubes function using an anode and an S-1 photocathode, made primarily of silver, caesium, and oxygen and an electrostatic inversion with electron acceleration were used to achieve gain.